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Histopathology is the examination of biological tissues in order to observe the appearance of diseased cells in microscopic detail

Amphetamines are a class of potent sympathomimetic agents with therapeutic applications. They are chemically related to the human body's natural catecholamines and epinephrine and norepinephrine. Acute higher doses lead to enhanced stimulation of the central nervous system and induce euphoria, alertness, reduced appetite, and a sense of increased energy and power. The effects of amphetamines generally lasts for 2-4 hours following use, while the drug has a half life of 4-24 hours in the body.

Morphine belongs to the opiates class of drug compounds. Morphine is detectable in the urine for several days after an opiate dose.

Cocaine, derived from the leaves of coca plant, is a potent central nervous system(CNS) stimulant and a local anesthetic. Cocaine induces euphoria, confidence and a sense of increased energy in the user; these psychological effects are accompanied  by increase heat rate, dilation of the pupils,fever,tremors and sweating. Cocaine is used by smoking, intravenous, intranasal or oral administration and excreted in the urine as benzoylecgonine in a short time. Benzoylecgoline has a biological half life of 5-8 hours. It can be generally de detected  f0r 24-60 hours after cocaine use or exposure.

Cannabis drug testing is used detect the presence of marijuana when injected or smoked. Elevated levels of urinary metabolites are found within hours of exposure and remain detectable for 3 to 10 days after smoking.

A sperm analysis is a test of sperm health, such as the number, movement, and size of sperm.

 Uric acid is a normal waste product that's made when the body breaks down chemicals called purines. ... High uric acid levels can also cause other disorders, including kidney stones and kidney failure

 The Protein-Creatinine Ratio (PCR) is used to measure the results of a lab test of proteinuria related to chronic kidney disease (CKD)

This test measures how much of the enzyme amylase is in your urine. ... Your amylase levels are usually higher than normal if you have a problem with your pancreas. High levels can also be caused by an infection, cancer, or even alcohol or medicines you are taking

The Bence Jones protein (BJP) test measures the level of BJP in your urine. ... These proteins are not present in healthy urine samples and are usually a sign of multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a type of bone marrow cancer that is most common in people who are older than 60 years

A urine calcium test is done to measure how much calcium is passed out of the body through urine. The test is also known as the urinary Ca+2 test. ... When calcium levels in the blood get too low, the bones release enough calcium to bring the level in the blood back to normal.

Urine chemistry is a group of one or more tests done to check the chemical content of a urine sample

Urine cytology is a test to look for abnormal cells in your urine. It's used with other tests and procedures to diagnose urinary tract cancers, most often bladder cancer. Your doctor might recommend a urine cytology test if you have blood in your urine (hematuria)

A urine culture is a test that can detect bacteria in your urine. This test can find and identify the germs that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI).

A urinalysis is a lab test used to detect cells and substances in the urine to help screen for and diagnose urinary tract infections or kidney 

The indirect Coombs test is used in prenatal testing of pregnant women and in testing prior to a blood transfusion. The test detects antibodies against foreign red blood cells.

The direct Coombs test is used to test for autoimmune hemolytic anemia—that is, a condition where the immune system breaks down red blood cells, leading to anemia. The direct Coombs test is used to detect antibodies or complement proteins attached to the surface of red blood cells.

The Rh blood group system is one of forty-five known human blood group systems. It is the second most important blood group system, after the ABO blood group system. The Rh blood group system consists of 49 defined blood group antigens, among which the five antigens D, C, c, E, and e are the most important.

A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood, based on the presence and absence of antibodies and inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system.

Bleeding time is a medical test done on someone to assess their platelets function. It involves making a patient bleed then timing how long it takes for them to stop bleeding.

As part of an investigation of a possible bleeding disorder or blood clot; to help investigate recurrent miscarriages or diagnose antiphospholipid syndrome , part of an evaluation before surgery or other invasive procedure

A prothrombin time test measures how quickly your blood clots. Prothrombin is a protein produced by your liver. It is one of many factors in your blood that help it to clot appropriately.

A fungal culture test is used to find out whether you have a fungal infection. The test may help identify specific fungi, guide treatment, or determine if a fungal infection treatment is working

To determine your general health status; to screen for, diagnose, or monitor any one of a variety of diseases and conditions that affect blood cells, such as anemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorder or cancer

A blood culture is a test that checks for foreign invaders like bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms in your blood. Having these pathogens in your bloodstream can be a sign of a blood infection, a condition known as bacteremia. A positive blood culture means that you have bacteria in your blood

A cardiolipin antibodies test looks for a certain kind of antibody in your blood. ... Cardiolipin is a phospholipid, or a kind of fat in the blood. The levels of these antibodies are often high in people with abnormal blood clotting, autoimmune diseases like lupus, or repeated miscarriages

The ENA (extractable nuclear antigen) panel is a blood test that looks for antibodies to 6 or 7 different proteins in the body.An extractable nuclear antigen (ENA) panel detects the presence of autoantibodies in the blood that react with proteins in the cell nucleus. ... The ENA panel may be used as follow-up testing to a positive ANA test to help diagnose an autoimmune disorder. These antibodies include: anti-Ro (also called anti-SSA)

The anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) test is used to help diagnose lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) in a person who has a positive result on a test for antinuclear antibody (ANA) and has clinical signs and symptoms that suggest lupus

The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is used as a primary test to help evaluate a person for autoimmune disorders that affect many tissues and organs throughout the body (systemic) and is most often used as one of the tests to help diagnose systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Helicobacter pylori tests are used to detect a Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infection in the stomach and upper part of the small intestine 

Thalassaemia is a group of inherited disorders that affect the amount of haemoglobin a person produces. Haemoglobin refers to a family of compounds all made up of haem (an iron-containing complex), and various globins (protein chains that surround the haem complex). Haemoglobin (Hb) molecules are found in all red blood cells, and are the reason for their red colour. They bind oxygen in the lungs, carry it through the bloodstream, and release it to the body’s tissues. This test measures the type and relative amounts of haemoglobins present in the red blood cells. Haemoglobin A, composed of both alpha and beta globin, is the major normal type of haemoglobin found in adults. A greater percentage of HbA2 and/or HbF is usually seen in beta thalassaemia trait. HbH may be seen in alpha thalassaemia, but only when at two of the four alpha genes are deleted or mutated.

Iron Saturation is done when your doctor suspects you may have too much or too little iron in your body because of a variety of conditions. Iron  Saturation is part of the iron studies that is done when somoeone is anaemic. These may include: Iron, Ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), and Percent Saturation of Transferrin. These tests measure different aspects of the body’s iron storage and usage. They are ordered to help determine whether an iron deficiency is causing and/or exacerbating a patient’s anaemia.

Folate and Vitamin B12  is used to help diagnose the cause of anamia or neuropathy (nerve damage), to evaluate nutritional status in some patients, to monitor effectiveness of treatment for B 12or folate deficiency. Folate and Vitamin B12 measure the concentration of folate and vitamin B12 in the serum (liquid portion of the blood). Vitamin B12 and folate are both part of the B complex of vitamins. Folate is found in leafy green vegetables, citrus fruits, dry beans and peas, liver, and yeast. Vitamin B12 is found in animal products such as red meat, fish, poultry, milk, and eggs. In recent years fortified cereals, breads, and other grain productshas also become an important dietary sources of folate (identified as "folic acid" on nutritional labels).

Transferrin is tested to essentially learn about the body's iron stores. TIBC or transferrin are typically used along with iron and ferritin to evaluate people suspected of having too much or too little iron stored within their body. Usually, about one third of the transferrin measured is being used to transport iron, and this is called transferrin saturation. In iron deficiency, iron is low and fewer transferrin binding sites are used. This results in a low transferrin saturation, but an increased TIBC. In iron overload, iron and transferrin saturation will be high and TIBC will be low or normal. Because transferrin is made in the liver, TIBC and transferrin will also be low with liver disease.

Ferritin test is used to assess the levels of iron stored in your body. Within cells, iron is stored bound to protein, forming complexes called ferritin and haemosiderin. Ferritin is the main storage complex and is present mostly in the liver, but also in the bone marrow, spleen, and muscles. Small amounts of ferritin also circulate in the blood. The ferritin concentration within the blood stream reflects the amount of iron stored in your body.

Iron is an essential nutrient. It is needed in small quantities to help form normal red blood cells (RBCs). Iron is a critical part of haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds oxygen in the lungs and releases it as blood travels to other parts of the body. Low iron levels can lead to anaemia and the production of RBCs that are small (microcytic) and pale (hypochromic). Large quantities of iron can be toxic to the body, and absorption of too much iron over time can lead to the accumulation of iron compounds in organs and tissues. This can damage organs such as the liver, joints, heart, and pancreas. Iron tests evaluate the amount of iron in the body by measuring several substances in the blood. These tests [namely transferrin or TIBC, ferritin] are often requested at the same time and the results considered together to help diagnose and/or monitor iron deficiency or iron overload. Iron deficiency may be seen with insufficient intake, inadequate absorption, or increased requirements, such as may be seen during pregnancy or with acute or chronic blood loss.  

The full blood count (FBC) is one of the most commonly requested tests and provides important information about the kinds and numbers of cells in the blood: red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Abnormalities in any of these types of cells can indicate the presence of important medical disorders. The FBC is used as a broad screening test to check for such disorders as anaemia, infection, and many other diseases. It is actually a panel of tests that examines different parts of the blood.

Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV): the virus can cause both acute and chronic hepatitis, ranging in severity from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a serious, lifelong illness. Hepatitis C is a major cause of liver cancer

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through contact with blood or other body fluids.

Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation and affect your liver's ability to function

As part of an investigation of a possible bleeding disorder or blood clot; to help investigate recurrent miscarriages or diagnose antiphospholipid syndrome , part of an evaluation before surgery or other invasive procedure

A prothrombin time test measures how quickly your blood clots. Prothrombin is a protein produced by your liver. It is one of many factors in your blood that help it to clot appropriately.

Doctors will measure GGT if they suspect damage to the liver or bile ducts, chronic alcohol abuse, or certain bone diseases.

To screen for or monitor treatment for a liver or bone disorder

To screen for liver damage and/or to help diagnose liver disease

To detect liver damage and/or to help diagnose liver disease

To screen for or monitor liver disorders or hemolytic anemia; to monitor neonatal jaundice

To screen for or monitor liver disorders or hemolytic anemia; to monitor neonatal jaundice

Globulin. This is a group of proteins. Some of them are made by your liver. ... The total serum protein test measures all the proteins in your blood. It can also check the amount of albumin you have compared to globulin, or what's called your “A/G ratio

To screen for and help diagnose a liver disorder or kidney disease

The total protein test measures the total amount of protein in your blood and specifically looks for the amount of albumin and globulin. This test will also look at the ratio of albumin to globulin in your blood. This is known as the “A/G ratio.”

An albumin test checks urine for a protein called albumin. Albumin is normally found in the blood and filtered by the kidneys. When the kidneys are working as they should, there may be a very small amount of albumin in the urine. But when the kidneys are damaged, abnormal amounts of albumin leak into the urine

A 24-hour urine collection is a simple lab test that measures what's in your urine. The test is used to check kidney function

The creatinine clearance is a test that allows your doctor to assess your kidney function. It is usually measured using both a blood test and a urine test. ... Creatinine clearance testing determines your overall glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which reflect how well your kidneys are cleaning your blood

A glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a blood test that checks how well your kidneys are working. ... A GFR test is used to help diagnose kidney disease at an early stage, when it is most treatable. GFR may also be used to monitor people with chronic kidney disease

A urine albumin test and albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) are used to screen for kidney disease in people with chronic conditions, such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension).

A urine microalbumin test is a test to detect very small levels of a blood protein (albumin) in your urine. A microalbumin test is used to detect early signs of kidney damage in people who are at risk of developing kidney disease

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) helps the body maintain stable levels of calcium in the blood. It is part of a feedback loop that includes calcium, PTH, vitamin D, and, to some extent, phosphorus (phosphate) and magnesium.

To help detect a condition causing tissue damage, such as a blood or liver disease, and to monitor its progress

To evaluate the level of phosphorus in your blood and to aid in the diagnosis of conditions known to cause abnormally high or low levels of phosphorus ( disorders related to kidney, bone and parathyroid gland)

 This test measures the amount of calcium in the blood or urine, which reflects the amount of total and ionized calcium in the body.

To monitor uric acid levels when undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment; diagnose the cause of kidney stones and to monitor those with gout who are at risk of developing such stones

To determine if there is a problem with your body's electrolyte balance or acid-base (pH) balance and to monitor treatment; as part of a routine health checkup

 The test may also be used to monitor or diagnose conditions related to abnormal potassium levels. These conditions include kidney disease,high blood pressure, and heart disease.

To determine whether your sodium level is within normal limits; to help evaluate electrolyte balance and to help determine the cause of and monitor the treatment for illnesses associated with abnormal sodium levels in the body

To evaluate the health of your kidneys; to help diagnose kidney disease; to monitor treatment for kidney disease

To evaluate the health of your kidneys; to help diagnose kidney disease; to monitor the effectiveness of dialysis and other treatments related to kidney disease or damage

can help your doctor determine if you recently had a strep infection by measuring the presence of antistreptolysin antibodies in your blood

To identify the presence of inflammation and to monitor response to treatment for an inflammatory disorder

To detect the presence of inflammation caused by one or more conditions such as infections, tumors or autoimmune diseases

Particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, with high specificity, presence early in the disease process, and ability to identify patients who are likely to have severe disease and irreversible damage.

To help diagnose the presence of an autoimmune disease such as rheumatoid arthritis 

triglyceride level test will help your doctor determine your risk of developing heart disease

The test is used to help determine your risk of developing heart disease and to monitor lipid-lowering lifestyle changes and drug therapies; to accurately determine your low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 

used as part of a lipid profile to screen for unhealthy levels of lipids and to determine an individual's risk of developing heart disease 

A complete cholesterol test is done to determine whether your cholesterol is high and estimate your risk of developing heart attacks and other forms of heart disease and diseases of the blood vessels.

To help assess your risk of developing cardiovascular disease

measure the level of cardiac-specific troponin in the blood to help detect heart injury.

To help determine if you are deficient in vitamins B6, B9 (folate) or B12; to determine if you are at increased risk of heart attack or stroke; to monitor those who have heart disease

To detect and monitor muscle damage; to help diagnose conditions associated with muscle damage; for heart attackdetection

To detect and monitor muscle damage; to help diagnose conditions associated with muscle damage; for heart attackdetection

You may need an ECG test if you have risk factors for heart disease such as high blood pressure, or symptoms such as palpitations or chest pain.

To screen for and diagnose a chlamydia infection

Gonorrhea testing identifies if the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the cause of a person's infection.

To help diagnose the cause of acute hepatitis; as part of a viral hepatitis panel to identify the type of hepatitis virus causing an infection; sometimes to evaluate the need for the hepatitis A/B/C vaccine

To screen for or diagnose an infection with the bacteriumTreponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)

To screen for or diagnose an infection with the bacteriumTreponema pallidum, which causes syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease (STD)

To determine if you are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

This test is used to help identify hyperparathyroidism, to find the cause of abnormal calcium levels, or to check the status of chronic kidney disease. PTH controls calcium and phosphorus levels in the blood.

A bone-density test is a way to measure the strength of your bones. The main reason to have the test is to find and treat serious bone loss, called osteoporosis, and prevent fractures and disability.

Test is used to screen for or monitor bone disorders. It is also sometimes used to check vitamin D levels in people with chronic illnesses such as asthma, psoriasis, and certain autoimmune diseases.

A magnesium test is used to measure the level of magnesium in the blood (or sometimes urine). ... It also may be ordered when a person has symptoms that may be due to a magnesium deficiency, such as muscle weakness, twitching, cramping, confusion, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures.

This test is ordered to see how much phosphorus is in your blood. Kidney, liver, and certain bone diseases can cause abnormal phosphorus levels.

A blood calcium test is ordered to screen for, diagnose, and monitor a range of conditions relating to the bones, heart, nerves, kidneys, and teeth.

Antithyroglobulin antibodies can be a sign of thyroid gland damage caused by the immune system. They may be measured if thyroiditis is suspected. Measuring thyroglobulin antibody levels after treatment for thyroid cancer can help your provider decide what the best test is to monitor you for a recurrence of the cancer

Anti-thyroid antibodies (ATA) tests, such as the microsomal antibody test (also known as thyroid peroxidase antibody test) and the anti-thyroglobulin antibody test, are commonly used to detect the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

help evaluate thyroid function and diagnose thyroid diseases, including hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, usually after discovering that the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level is abnormal

can assist in determining whether the thyroid is performing properly, and is used mainly to help diagnose hyperthyroidism

A TSH test is done to find out if your thyroid gland is working the way it should. It can tell you if it's overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism)

Specific IgE test is done to look for  specific allergens which causes an allergy. An allergic reaction  is a hyper-sensitivity to a specific substance which, if inhaled, ingested, touched or injected, causes characteristic symptoms like eczema, rashes, nasal congestion, eye iritation, migraines, colics, looose motion, respiratory problems.

Over 60 common allergens that are available at Green Cross are:-

Flour, Spices, Cocoa, Milk, Nuts, Seafood, Egg, Meat, Vegatables, Fruits, Dust, Pollen, Mould, Mites, Dog and Cat Dander, Insects.

Allergy is a hyper-sensitivity to a specific substance which, if inhaled, ingested, touched or injected, causes characteristic symptoms.   The Total IgE  measures the overall quantity of immunoglobulin E in the blood. It can  only be used to detect an allergic response in the body rather than detecting which allergen is someone allergic to. IgE Speficic tests are done to detects the speficic allergens that someone can be allergic to.

test looks for signs of damage to the body's tissues. 

A serum lipase test measures the amount of lipase in the body. Abnormally high levels of the enzyme in your blood can indicate a health problem.

blood test is used to diagnose or monitor a problem with your pancreas, including pancreatitis, an inflammation of the pancreas.

test measures the amount of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in your blood. It helps assess damage in the brain, muscle tissue

Creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) is a form of an enzyme found primarily in heart muscle cells. This test measures CK-MB in the blood. CK-MB is one of three forms (isoenzymes) of the enzyme creatine kinase (CK)

Test used to diagnose Influenza A & B

Can be used to test for M. tuberculosis infection

Used to detect and diagnose bacterial lower respiratory tract infections such as bacterial pneumonia or bronchitis.

Test to determine if a person has tuberculosis (TB) or another type of mycobacterial infection

Urine test used to diagnose pregnancy

A beta HCG test is a blood test used to diagnose pregnancy

this test measures your body's response to sugar (glucose)

Gestational diabetes screening test to be performed on all expectant mothers at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy and in the first and third trimester if there are risk 

The HbA1c test, also known as the haemoglobin A1c or glycated haemoglobin test, is an important blood test that gives a good indication of how well your diabetes is being controlled.

A random glucose test is one method for measuring the amount of glucose or sugar circulating in a person's blood.

Fasting blood sugar levels give vital clues about how a person's body is managing blood sugar. 

A bacterial culture is a test used to determine whether bacteria or fungi are infecting a wound.

A bacterial culture is a test used to determine whether bacteria or fungi are infecting the nose

A bacterial culture is a test used to determine whether bacteria or fungi are infecting the throat

A bacterial culture is a test used to determine whether bacteria or fungi are infecting the vagina

A bacterial culture is a test used to determine whether bacteria or fungi are infecting a wound containing pus.

A urine culture is a test that can detect bacteria in your urine. This test can find and identify the germs that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI).

The HPV test is a screening test for cervical cancer, but the test doesn't tell you whether you have cancer. Instead, the test detects the presence of HPV, the virus that causes cervical cancer, in your system.

The Papanicolaou test is a method of cervical screening used to detect potentially precancerous and cancerous processes in the cervix

PSA, a protein produced by prostate gland cells, circulates through the body in two ways: either bound to other proteins or on its own. PSA traveling alone is called free PSA. The free-PSA test measures the percentage of unbound PSA; the PSA test measures the total of both free and bound PSA. It can be used to diagnose Prostate cancer

PSA, a protein produced by prostate gland cells, circulates through the body in two ways: either bound to other proteins or on its own. PSA traveling alone is called free PSA. The free-PSA test measures the percentage of unbound PSA; the PSA test measures the total of both free and bound PSA. It can be used to diagnose Prostate cancer

a blood test used to help diagnose and manage certain types of cancers. The CEA test is used especially for cancers of the large intestine and rectum.

A CA 125 test measures the amount of the protein CA 125 (cancer antigen 125) in your blood. A CA 125 test may be used to monitor certain cancers during and after treatment. In some cases, a CA 125 test may be used to look for early signs of ovarian cancer in people with a very high risk of the disease

This test measures the level of CA19-9. Since CA 19-9 can be measured in blood, it is useful as a tumor marker to follow the course of the cancer

This test is used to monitor certain types of cancer. Breast cancer is the cancer most likely to release CA 15-3, especially in breast cancer that comes back after treatment.

To screen for or diagnose infection with the herpes simplex virus (HSV)

This test looks for antibodies to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a virus in the herpes family, in your blood

A toxoplasma test is a blood test that determines if you have serum antibodies to the Toxoplasma gondii parasite

A rubella blood test detects antibodies that are made by the immune system to help kill the rubella virus. The test for IgG antibodies is most common and is the test done to see if a woman who is pregnant or planning to get pregnant is immune to rubella.

This test measures the amount of the medicine carbamazepine in your blood. Carbamazepine is the generic name of a medicine used to treat epilepsy, mania, bipolar disorder, and pain

medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches. They are useful for the prevention of seizures in those with absence seizures, partial seizures, and generalized seizures.

The phenytoin test is used to optimize drug therapy, monitor the amount of phenytoin in the blood, determine whether drug concentrations are in the therapeutic range, and to monitor patient adherence

Estriol can be measured in maternal blood or urine and can be used as a marker of fetal health and well-being

The test can help your doctor find out if there are problems with your adrenal glands

To help diagnose one cause of anemia or neuropathy; to evaluate nutritional status in some people; to monitor the effectiveness of treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency.

A ferritin test helps your doctor understand how much iron your body is storing.

A folic acid test measures the amount of folic acid in the blood. Folic acid is vitamin B-9, which is essential for the production of healthy red blood cells. These cells deliver oxygen to the entire body, so they're vital for maintaining overall health.

It is a protein made in the liver of a developing baby. AFP levels are usually high when a baby is born, but fall to very low levels by the age of 1. Healthy adults should have very low levels of AFP. An AFP tumor marker test is a blood test that measures the levels of AFP in adults

To help determine the cause of infertility, track ovulation, help diagnose an ectopic or failing pregnancy, monitor the health of a pregnancy, monitor progesterone replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding

Testosterone is an androgen, or a sex hormone, produced by both males and females. It plays a role in puberty and fertility

To help investigate unexplained flow of breast milk , abnormal nipple discharge, absence of menstrual periods, and/or infertility in women; in men, to help diagnose the cause of decreased libido and/or erectile dysfunction; to detect and monitor a pituitary tumor that produces prolactin (prolactinoma)

To evaluate fertility issues, function of reproductive organs (ovaries or testicles), or pituitary function

To evaluate fertility issues, function of reproductive organs (ovaries or testicles), or to detect the release of an egg from the ovary (ovulation); to evaluate pituitary function

Free and total insulin is a test to measure the fraction of insulin that is bound by antibodies and to measure total insulin after the removal of antibodies by special preparation

Particularly useful in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis, with high specificity, presence early in the disease process, and ability to identify patients who are likely to have severe disease and irreversible damage.

Test done to determine vitamin D concentration in serum whether deficiency or toxicity if on vitamin D supplementation.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) helps the body maintain stable levels of calcium in the blood. It is part of a feedback loop that includes calcium, PTH, vitamin D, and, to some extent, phosphorus (phosphate) and magnesium.

A cortisol test measures the level of cortisol in your blood, urine, or saliva.If your cortisol levels are too high or too low, it may mean you have a disorder of your adrenal glands adrenal glands